2023.05.28 00:49 thevanlifechronicles 2019 Promaster 2500 Conversion with TWO slider doors for sale!
VAN DETAILS Asking price: $55,500 OBO - all serious offers will be considered. Currently in Las Vegas NV - may consider delivery for serious buyer upon negotiation.submitted by thevanlifechronicles to vandwellermarketplace [link] [comments]
2019 Ram Promaster 2500 2WD High Roof, 159 wheelbase, gasoline 56k miles
Two sliding doors (passenger and driver sides) Rear backup camera Cruise control Swivel seats- driver and passenger Oil and tire rotation every 5k miles Runs excellent.
CONVERSION DETAILS Renogy Solar system: 600 watt solar panels 170 hour lithium battery DC to DC charger Rover 60 amp charge controller Battery charge/usage display (2) Maxxair fans, and (3) 12v charge ports are wired to fuse box (there are available fuse ports for additional items). 12v charge ports have additional inline fuses, and the DC to DC charger and main system have additional breakers installed.
(2) maxxair deluxe fans with rain guard and remote controls
Black powder coated ladder on back door Small rooftop deck Solar panels attached to roof racks
Dometic 95dz - refrigeratofreezer, 95 liter dual zone (two separate compartment, can be set at any desired temp) Built into bench along driver side sliding door)
Campchef propane oven / 2-burner stove, and 5lb propane tank with leak detection shut off
Small farmhouse style porcelain sink with USB rechargeable faucet. 6 gallon clear water tank, and 6 gallon grey tank under sink. (Additional 6 gallon clear tank storage in cabinets for quick switch out, for total of 12 gallons clear water onboard)
Murphy bed comes down over L-shaped couch. Storage underneath couch (Comes with Full size 12 inch thick Spa Sensations memory foam mattress that has always been in a mattress protector.) Benches have 3” memory foam padding.
Overhead storage cabinet Closet with hanging rod and wire drawers Cabinet with various size storage compartments. Slide out pantry (floor to ceiling height)
(2) 12x24 windows installed on rear passenger and driver side. 1/2 slide open with built in screens
WeBoost cell phone signal booster. All direction antennae on extending pole.
Custom insulated window covers for windshield and cab side windows
Van insulated with poly iso under floor, and thinsulate / air gap / reflectix combo on walls and ceiling.
Walls and ceiling: black faux leather base and beetle kill pine boards.
Stainmaster luxury vinyl flooring
Joolca Hottap Portable Hot Water Kit - instant hot water heater / shower system. Rings on ceiling to hang shower curtain, and fold up pool can be set up for showering inside. Or can shower outside. (Hot water heater is propane, and comes with legs, quick connect hoses, 12v water pump, and on/off hand held shower head.)
2023.05.28 00:08 RedditRocks2021 Free Cedar Point, Michigan Adventure, Kings Island Ticket with Blood Drive Donation - IN, MI, OH - 2023 Season
submitted by RedditRocks2021 to FreeMichiganEvents [link] [comments]
The American Red Cross and Cedar Fair theme parks are joining together to encourage blood donations this summer, All those who come to donate at select blood drives will receive one free ticket, valid for entry to participating U.S. Cedar Fair parks as listed below, while supplies last. Ends August 01, 2023, Parking not included.
The summer months are a crucial time for blood and platelet donations as donations tend to decline due to summer vacations and travel among regular donors,, The Red Cross is grateful to blood and platelet donors for coming together to support patients during this challenging time..
Register thru website listed below, Find the blood drive you want to attend, click link and enter the sponsor code: "cedarpoint" in MI or OH, Special code below for Indiana, For that blood drive and register online for an appointment. Blood Donor or person attempting to Donate Blood will receive One (1) Free Cedar Fair ticket available at any one of these Amusement Parks & Blood Drives (below) only. Free Ticket Voucher may be mailed, Due to limited tickets available at each location below. Advance Registration Required. Check back bi-weekly as we add more blood drives. You can donate blood once every 52 days. Did you know when you donate blood, you can save 3 lives. Be the difference, Donate blood and save 3 lives today! Thanks so much for your blood donation..
■ Free Admission Voucher good at any of these Cedar Fair Parks:
Cedar Point – 1 Cedar Point Dr., Sandusky, Ohio
Cedar Point Shores – 1 Cedar Point Dr., Sandusky, Ohio
Carowinds – 14523 Carowinds Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina
California’ s Great America – 4701 Great America Pkwy, Santa Clara, California
Dorney Park – 4000 Dorney Park Rd., Allentown, Pennsylvania
Kings Dominion – 16000 Theme Park Way, Doswell, Virginia
Kings Island – 6300 Kings Island Drive, Kings Island, Ohio
Knott’s Berry Farm – 8039 Beach Blvd., Buena Park, California
Knott’s Soak City – 8039 Beach Blvd., Buena Park, California
Michigan’s Adventure -4750 Whitehall Rd., Muskegon, Michigan
Schlitterbahn Galveston – 2109 Gene Lucas Blvd, Galveston, Texas
Schlitterbahn New Braunfels – 400 N. Liberty Avenue, New Braunfels, Texas
Valleyfair – 1 Valleyfair Drive, Shakopee, Minnesota
Worlds of Fun – 4545 Worlds of Fun Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri
*** UPDATED MAY 27, 2023 ***
STATE OF INDIANA - 2023 Season
05/26 - 12:30 PM - 06:00 PM - Church of the Nazarene, 1555 Flaxmill Road, Huntington - Sponsor Code: hnaz
05/27 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM - YMCA, 5736 Lee Rd., Indianapolis - Sponsor Code: bhymca
05/30 - 02:00 PM - 06:00 PM - DaySpring Church, 2305 N Indiana, Auburn - Sponsor Code: daysprich
06/14 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Community Learning Center 401 East Diamond St. Kendallville
06/14 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - United Methodist Church 13527 Leo Rd. Leo
06/16 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM - Skyline YMCA 838 South Harrison St, Fort Wayne
06/26 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - First Baptist Church of Ossian 1001 Dehner Dr, Ossian
06/27 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Zion Lutheran Church 101 East North St. Columbia City
06/28 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - YMCA 5680 YMCA Park Dr West, Fort Wayne
06/29 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - College Park Church 1936 College Ave, Huntington
06/30 - 12:30 PM - 05:30 PM - YMCA 10313 Aboite Center Rd, Fort Wayne
STATE OF MICHIGAN - 2023 Season - Sponsor Code: CEDARPOINT
05/31 - 11:30 AM - 04:15 PM....United Methodist Church 203 Concord Rd, Jonesville
06/02 - 08:00 AM - 04:00 PM....Serra Whelan Chevrolet 40445 Van Dyke. Sterling Heights, 48313
06/02 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM....Pleasant Ridge Center 4 Ridge Rd. Pleasant Ridge, 48069
06/09 - 11:00 AM - 04:45 PM....Columbia Central High School 11775 Hewitt Rd, Brooklyn
06/26 - 11:00 AM - 03:45 PM....Napoleon Township 6755 Brooklyn Rd, Napoleon
06/27 - 10:00 AM - 03:45 PM.....West Rome Baptist Church 11984 Rome Rd, Manitou Beach
06/29 - 11:00 AM - 04:45 PM.....Goodwill Headquarters 1357 Division Street Adrian
07/06 - 01:00 PM - 05:45 PM.....First Baptist Church 131 E Main street North Adams
07/06 - 12:00 PM - 05:45 PM.....Free Methodist Church 2829 Park Drive, Jackson
07/11 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM....Redeemer Fellowship Church 5305 Evergreen Drive Monroe
07/27 - 10:00 AM - 03:30 PM....Dundee Veterans Memorial 418 Dunham Dundee.
STATE OF OHIO - 2023 Season - Sponsor Code: CEDARPOINT
05/26 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM.....Rocky River Civic Center 21016 Hilliard Blvd. Rocky River
05/30 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) 847 W. Maple St. Clyde
05/30 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM.....Cleveland Heights High 13263 Cedar Road, Cleveland Heights
05/31 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Christ Community Chapel 750 West Streetsboro St. Hudson
06/01 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM....Youngstown Saxon Club 710 S Meridian Rd, Youngstown
06/06 - 08:00 AM - 03:00 PM.....Massillon Recreation Center 505 Erie Street North Massillon
06/07 - 11:00 AM - 06:00 PM......Avon Isle Park 37080 Detroit Road, Avon
06/07 - 08:00 AM - 02:00 PM......All American Drive at The Venues, 540 S. St Clair Street, Toledo
06/07 - 07:30 AM - 01:30 PM......Bryan High School 1000 W Fountain Grove Dr, Bryan
06/08 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......All American Drive at The Venues, 540 S. St Clair Street, Toledo
06/08 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Ashtabula Towne Square, 3315 N Ridge Rd E, Ashtabula
06/10 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM......Grace Church 7393 Pearl Rd Middleburg Heights
06/12 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Wickliffe Community Center 900 Worden Road Wickliffe
06/13 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Stonebridge Church 2111 Stonehedge Dr. Findlay
06/14 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......St Paul's Lutheran Church 2860 East Market St. Warren
06/15 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Sandusky Mall Rt. 250 Milan Rd. Sandusky
06/15 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.......Wooster Community Hospital 1761 Beall Ave. Wooster
06/16 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Zenobia Shrine 8048 Broadstone Blvd. Perrysburg
06/20 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Moose Lodge, 1146 N SR 53, Tiffin
06/21 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Sawmill Creek Resort 400 Sawmill Creek Dr., Huron
06/22 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM......North Ridgeville Library, 35700 Bainbridge Rd, North Ridgeville
06/23 - 09:00 AM - 06:00 PM......Mentor Civic Arena 8600 Munson Rd. Mentor
06/23 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......American Legion 500 Glenwood Napoleon
06/23 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Hilltop High School 1401 West Jackson Street West, Unity
06/29 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM......Medina Performing Center, 851 Weymouth Rd, Medina
06/30 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM.....Montpelier High School 1015 E. Brown Rd. Montpelier
07/03 - 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM.....Fairview/Gemini Center 21225 Lorain Road Fairview Park
07/05 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Packard Music Hall 1703 Mahoning Ave. Warren
07/05 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM......Wooster Community Hospital 1761 Beall Ave. Wooster
07/07 - 08:30 AM - 02:30 PM.......Hilton Garden Inn 6165 Levis Commons Blvd. Perrysburg
07/11 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.......Hilton Garden Inn 700 Beta Drive Mayfield Village
07/13 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......United Methodist Church, 130 W. Johnson St., Upper Sandusky
07/13 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM......United Methodist Church 170 Seminary St. Berea
07/13 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Teamsters Local 20 435 S. Hawley St Toledo
07/18 - 10:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Crocker Park 239 Market Street Westlake
07/26 - 09:30 AM - 07:00 PM......Cleveland Marriott East 26300 Harvard Rd. Warrensville Heights
07/27 -12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.......Elks 231 Buckeye Blvd. Port Clinton
07/31 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM......Community Center 6363 Selig Dr, Independence
08/01 -12:00 PM - 06:00 PM .......Cuyahoga County Library 5071 Wallings Rd, North Royalton
Additional blood drives added every 2 weeks - Click here for updates
Red Cross First Time Donors Video
What happens to donated blood?
American Red Cross - Donate Blood Eligibility Requirements
MAKE AN APPOINTMENT
2023.05.28 00:05 Hitch42 Audio-Drama.com links from May 21 to May 27, 2023
Audio-Drama.com is an online directory of audio drama and spoken word websites, with at least one new link added to it every day, and 100 or more new entries created each month. As of this post, there are 9,285 published articles. Here are the newest articles from the past week:submitted by Hitch42 to audiodrama [link] [comments]
Compiling these link takes a lot of time and is something that I work on many hours every day. If you appreciate this effort and would like to help support it, please consider visiting the Audio-Drama.com Patreon page. Audio-Drama.com will always remain free for everyone.
Previous weekly Audio-Drama.com links
2023.05.27 22:56 PlayingWithTc99m Getting a family of 8 to Galveston
2023.05.27 20:18 jimbobbypaul Ranking the Top 131 FBS Programs of the Last 40 Years: 90. Indiana
1. 1988: 21. Indiana: 8-3-1 (16.958) 2. 2020: 25. Indiana: 6-2 (14.813) 3. 1987: 26. Indiana: 8-4 (10.760) 4. 1993: 27. Indiana: 8-4 (9.215) 5. 1991: 32. Indiana: 7-4-1 (8.940) 6. 2019: 50. Indiana: 8-5 (-0.987) 7. 1990: 52. Indiana: 6-5-1 (-6.329) 8. 1994: 51. Indiana: 6-5 (-6.404) 9. 2007: 60. Indiana: 7-6 (-6.490) 10. 2001: 61. Indiana: 5-6 (-9.143) 11. 1986: 54. Indiana: 6-6 (-9.350) 12. 2015: 72. Indiana: 6-7 (-10.429) 13. 1989: 62. Indiana: 5-6 (-12.269) 14. 2018: 78. Indiana: 5-7 (-12.319) 15. 2013: 75. Indiana: 5-7 (-12.406) 16. 2016: 69. Indiana: 6-7 (-12.984) 17. 2017: 82. Indiana: 5-7 (-16.099) 18. 1992: 66. Indiana: 5-6 (-16.837) 19. 1998: 67. Indiana: 4-7 (-18.081) 20. 2006: 73. Indiana: 5-7 (-20.689) 21. 1999: 76. Indiana: 4-7 (-20.726) 22. 2022: 94. Indiana: 4-8 (-23.599) 23. 2010: 83. Indiana: 5-7 (-24.550) 24. 1996: 78. Indiana: 3-8 (-24.727) 25. 2014: 92. Indiana: 4-8 (-25.542) 26. 2009: 93. Indiana: 4-8 (-27.758) 27. 2000: 86. Indiana: 3-8 (-28.932) 28. 2012: 90. Indiana: 4-8 (-29.149) 29. 1985: 81. Indiana: 4-7 (-29.364) 30. 2005: 98. Indiana: 4-7 (-30.671) 31. 2004: 90. Indiana: 3-8 (-32.732) 32. 1983: 85. Indiana: 3-8 (-32.762) 33. 1995: 91. Indiana: 2-9 (-38.537) 34. 2008: 105. Indiana: 3-9 (-39.597) 35. 2002: 100. Indiana: 3-9 (-42.548) 36. 2021: 114. Indiana: 2-10 (-43.031) 37. 1997: 100. Indiana: 2-9 (-45.071) 38. 2003: 108. Indiana: 2-10 (-50.839) 39. 2011: 114. Indiana: 1-11 (-56.035) 40. 1984: 105. Indiana: 0-11 (-57.235) Overall Score: 8059 (90th)
2023.05.27 19:52 MexCindy Car import agency
2023.05.27 19:23 London-Roma-1980 NON CONFERENCE MATCHDAY 9 RESULTS
2023.05.27 18:53 mcgeoy $1usd/day car rental too good to be true
Taking a trip to Tamarindo (flying in to LIR) with my girlfriend in a few weeks, and this listing keeps popping up through rental car companies near LIR. Is this too good to be true? Anyone have experience with the $1usd/day rental?submitted by mcgeoy to costarica [link] [comments]
2023.05.27 14:27 Angel466 [Bob the hobo] A Celestial Wars Spin-Off Part 0836
2023.05.27 09:30 Turtle456 White 12 Passenger Van Either Belongs To Kidnapper Or Nice Catholic Family
|submitted by Turtle456 to satire_de_en [link] [comments]|
2023.05.27 04:09 sesamesticks Trip Summary: 7 days in Costa Rica (Tamarindo, Monteverde, La Fortuna, Liberia)
2023.05.27 03:30 wtfwafflezor (Selling) 800 Titles Knock at the Cabin MA HD $5.50 Batman 2022 MA HD $2.50
2023.05.27 00:29 Right-Corner5091 Seething and crying right now
2023.05.26 23:42 JoshAsdvgi Trail of Tears
submitted by JoshAsdvgi to Native_Stories [link] [comments]
In 1830, at President Andrew Jackson’s urging, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in order to free up land for the nation’s expanding white population.
The act granted the president the power to negotiate treaties with Native American tribes to relinquish their lands east of the Mississippi River in exchange for unsettled lands west of the river.
While some Indians complied peacefully, the Cherokee, among other tribes, resisted. In 1838, U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokees from their traditional lands in the southern Appalachians, held them in camps then forced them to relocate to Indian Territory, in present-day Oklahoma.
An estimated 15,000 to 16,000 Cherokee people made the grueling journey west, following one of several routes that collectively became known as the Trail of Tears. Along the way, some 3,000 to 4,000 of them died from disease, malnutrition and exposure.
Check out seven facts about this infamous chapter in American history.
Davy Crockett objected to Indian removal.
Frontiersman Davy Crockett, whose grandparents were killed by Creeks and Cherokees, was a scout for Andrew Jackson during the Creek War (1813-14). However, while serving as a U.S. congressman from Tennessee, Crockett broke with President Jackson over the Indian Removal Act, calling it unjust. Despite warnings that his opposition to Indian removal would cost him his seat in Congress, where he’d served since 1827, Crockett said, “I would sooner be honestly and politically damned than hypocritically immortalized.” The year after the act’s 1830 passage, Crockett lost his bid for reelection. After being voted back into office in 1833, he continued to express his opposition to Jackson’s policy and wrote that he would leave the U.S. for the “wildes of Texas” if Martin Van Buren, Jackson’s vice president, succeeded him in the White House. After Crockett was again defeated for reelection, in 1835, he did go to Texas, where he died fighting at the Alamo in March 1836.
Renegade Cherokees signed a treaty selling all tribal lands.
John Ross, who was of Scottish and Cherokee ancestry and became the tribe’s principal chief in 1828, was strongly opposed to giving up the Cherokees’ ancestral lands, as were the majority of the Cherokee people. However, a small group within the tribe believed it was inevitable that white settlers would keep encroaching on their lands and therefore the only way to preserve Cherokee culture and survive as a tribe was to move west. In 1835, while Ross was away, this minority faction signed a treaty at New Echota, the Cherokee Nation capital (located in Georgia), agreeing to sell the U.S. government all tribal lands in the East in exchange for $5 million and new land in the West. As part of the agreement, the government was supposed help cover the Cherokees’ moving costs and pay to support them during their first year in Indian Territory. When Ross found out about the treaty, he argued it had been made illegally. Nevertheless, in 1836 it was ratified by a single vote in the U.S. Senate and signed by President Jackson. The treaty gave the Cherokees two years to vacate their lands. In June 1839, after the Cherokees had been forced to relocate to Indian Territory, several leaders of the so-called Treaty Party, who’d advocated for the New Echota agreement, were assassinated by tribe members who’d opposed removal to the west.
Martin Van Buren ordered the roundup of the Cherokees.
During his two terms in the White House, from 1829 to 1837, Andrew Jackson was responsible for putting Indian removal policies in place; however, he left office before the 1838 deadline for the Cherokees to surrender their lands in the East. It was Jackson’s presidential successor, Martin Van Buren, who ordered General Winfield Scott to forcibly evict the Cherokees. Scott’s troops rounded up thousands of Cherokees and then imprisoned them in forts in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina and Alabama. During these roundups, the Indians weren’t given time to pack and family members, including children, sometimes got left behind if they weren’t home when the soldiers showed up. The Indians were transferred from the forts to detention camps, most of them in Tennessee, to await deportation. At both the forts and camps, living conditions were bleak and diseases rampant, and an unknown number of Cherokees died.
The Trail of Tears wasn’t just one route.
The first group of Cherokees departed Tennessee in June 1838 and headed to Indian Territory by boat, a journey that took them along the Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi and Arkansas rivers. Heat and extended drought soon made travel along this water route impractical, so that fall and winter thousands more Cherokees were forced to trek from Tennessee to present-day Oklahoma via one of several overland routes. Federal officials allowed Chief John Ross to take charge of these overland removals, and he organized the Indians into 13 groups, each comprised of nearly a thousand people. Although there were some wagons and horses, most people had to walk.
The route followed by the largest number of Cherokees—12,000 people or more, according to some estimates—was the northern route, a distance of more than 800 miles through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and into Indian Territory. The last groups of Cherokees made it to Indian Territory in March 1839. A century later, Route 66, the iconic highway established in 1926, overlapped with part of this route, from Rolla to Springfield, Missouri.
Not all Cherokees left the Southeast.
A small group of Cherokee people managed to remain in North Carolina, either as a result of an 1819 agreement that enabled them to stay on their land there, or because they hid in the mountains from the U.S. soldiers sent to capture them. The group, which also included people who walked back from Indian Territory, became known as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Today, the group has approximately 12,500 members, who live primarily in western North Carolina on the 57,000-acre Qualla Boundary.
The Cherokees rebuilt in Indian Territory.
In the first years after their arrival in Indian Territory, life was difficult for many Cherokees. However, under the leadership of Chief Ross the tribe rebuilt in the 1840s and 1850s, establishing businesses and a public school system and publishing what was then America’s only tribal newspaper. When the U.S. Civil War broke out, the Cherokee Nation found itself politically divided. Ross initially believed the Cherokees should remain neutral in the conflict, but there was a faction who supported the South so the chief made an alliance with the Confederacy, in part to try to keep the Cherokees united. Ross soon grew disillusioned with the Confederates, who had abandoned their promises of protection and supplies to the Indians. Ross spent the rest of the war in Philadelphia, where his second wife had a home (his first wife died while walking the Trail of Tears) and Washington, D.C., trying to convince President Abraham Lincoln that the Cherokees were loyal to the Union. Ross died of illness on August 1, 1866, having served as principal chief for nearly 40 years.
The U.S. apologized to Native American groups in 2009.
In December 2009, President Barack Obama signed a bill that included an official apology to all American Indian tribes for past injustices. U.S. Senators Sam Brownback of Kansas and Byron Dorgan of North Dakota led a bipartisan effort to pass the resolution, which stated: “the United States, acting through Congress…recognizes that there have been years of official depredations, ill-conceived policies, and the breaking of covenants by the Federal Government regarding Indian tribes.” However, the resolution did not call for reparations and included a disclaimer that it wasn’t meant to support any legal claims against the United States.
At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida–land their ancestors had occupied and cultivated for generations.
By the end of the decade, very few natives remained anywhere in the southeastern United States.
Working on behalf of white settlers who wanted to grow cotton on the Indians’ land, the federal government forced them to leave their homelands and walk thousands of miles to a specially designated “Indian territory” across the Mississippi River.
This difficult and sometimes deadly journey is known as the Trail of Tears.
THE “INDIAN PROBLEM”
White Americans, particularly those who lived on the western frontier, often feared and resented the Native Americans they encountered:
To them, American Indians seemed to be an unfamiliar, alien people who occupied land that white settlers wanted (and believed they deserved).
Some officials in the early years of the American republic, such as President George Washington, believed that the best way to solve this “Indian problem” was simply to “civilize” the Native Americans.
The goal of this civilization campaign was to make Native Americans as much like white Americans as possible by encouraging them convert to Christianity, learn to speak and read English, and adopt European-style economic practices such as the individual ownership of land and other property (including, in some instances in the South, African slaves).
In the southeastern United States, many Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek and Cherokee people embraced these customs and became known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.”
Indian removal took place in the Northern states as well.
In Illinois and Wisconsin, for example, the bloody Black Hawk War in 1832 opened to white settlement millions of acres of land that had belonged to the Sauk, Fox and other native nations.
But their land, located in parts of Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, Florida and Tennessee, was valuable, and it grew to be more coveted as white settlers flooded the region.
Many of these whites yearned to make their fortunes by growing cotton, and they did not care how “civilized” their native neighbors were:
They wanted that land and they would do almost anything to get it.
They stole livestock; burned and looted houses and towns;, and squatted on land that did not belong to them.
State governments joined in this effort to drive Native Americans out of the South.
Several states passed laws limiting Native American sovereignty and rights and encroaching on their territory. In a few cases, such as Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the U.S. Supreme Court objected to these practices and affirmed that native nations were sovereign nations “in which the laws of Georgia [and other states] can have no force.”
Even so, the maltreatment continued.
As President Andrew Jackson noted in 1832, if no one intended to enforce the Supreme Court’s rulings (which he certainly did not), then the decisions would “[fall]…still born.” Southern states were determined to take ownership of Indian lands and would go to great lengths to secure this territory.
Andrew Jackson had long been an advocate of what he called “Indian removal.”
As an Army general, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama and the Seminoles in Florida–campaigns that resulted in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of acres of land from Indian nations to white farmers.
As president, he continued this crusade.
In 1830, he signed the Indian Removal Act, which gave the federal government the power to exchange Native-held land in the cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi for land to the west, in the “Indian colonization zone” that the United States had acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
(This “Indian territory” was located in present-day Oklahoma.)
The law required the government to negotiate removal treaties fairly, voluntarily and peacefully: It did not permit the president or anyone else to coerce Native nations into giving up their land.
However, President Jackson and his government frequently ignored the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to vacate lands they had lived on for generations.
In the winter of 1831, under threat of invasion by the U.S. Army, the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from its land altogether.
They made the journey to Indian territory on foot (some “bound in chains and marched double file,” one historian writes) and without any food, supplies or other help from the government.
Thousands of people died along the way.
It was, one Choctaw leader told an Alabama newspaper, a “trail of tears and death.”
THE TRAIL OF TEARS
The Indian-removal process continued. In 1836, the federal government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time: 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who set out for Oklahoma did not survive the trip.
The Cherokee people were divided:
What was the best way to handle the government’s determination to get its hands on their territory?
Some wanted to stay and fight.
Others thought it was more pragmatic to agree to leave in exchange for money and other concessions.
In 1835, a few self-appointed representatives of the Cherokee nation negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which traded all Cherokee land east of the Mississippi for $5 million, relocation assistance and compensation for lost property.
To the federal government, the treaty was a done deal, but many of the Cherokee felt betrayed:
After all, the negotiators did not represent the tribal government or anyone else.
“The instrument in question is not the act of our nation,” wrote the nation’s principal chief, John Ross, in a letter to the U.S. Senate protesting the treaty.
“We are not parties to its covenants; it has not received the sanction of our people.”
Nearly 16,000 Cherokees signed Ross’s petition, but Congress approved the treaty anyway.
By 1838, only about 2,000 Cherokees had left their Georgia homeland for Indian territory. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process.
Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while whites looted their homes and belongings.
Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian territory.
Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey.
By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory.
The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian country” shrank and shrank.
In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good.
Trail of Tears
"I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west....On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow storm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold and exposure..."
Private John G. Burnett, Captain Abraham McClellan's Company, 2nRegiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838-39
1700- Settlers continued to increase their number by birth and by immigration. There wasn’t enough land to go around so the settlers moved ever westward. More land was needed for tobacco plantations, as England demanded ever mote taxes. The Cherokees would leave a hunting territory for a few seasons to allow the wildlife to recover. When they returned they found the forest cut, dozens of cabins, and no wildlife in sight. The Cherokees would try to scare the settlers away, but the settlers had guns. When the settlers won, they called it an Indian war. When the Indians won, the white men called it a massacre.
1750 - The King of England made treaties with the Indians and gave them ‘King’s Grants’ to the land they claimed. The British sent soldiers to protect the boundaries and to regulate the fur trade between the Indians and the colonies. Soldiers took Indian wives and began calling the children after their own family names. Traders and Indian Agents caught smallpox in the settlements and rapidly spread it to the Indians who had no immunity. Within a few short years, the Indian population was reduced to about one-tenth of its original size.
The traders offered guns for furs. The Indians slaughtered hundreds of animals for furs to trade, and when they looked for game to eat, it had been nearly wiped out. The Cherokees would leave an area to let the game recover, and the settlers took this as a sign that the Indians had abandoned the land, and move in.
1775 – During the Revolutionary war, the Cherokees took the side of the British and attacked white settlements in their territory. After the war, many British soldiers decided to stay in the Cherokee Nation with their families. The new American government refused to honor the earlier ‘King’s Grants’ and sent the American Army to force the Cherokees to sign new treaties, which required them to give up more land.
By 1800, the Cherokee Nation had shrunk to less than ¼ of it’s original size. Most Cherokees had retreated to lands in northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee. Many had adopted white ways. The US government and the State of Georgia adopted anti-Indian policies, and used soldiers to enforce the new laws.
1812 – General Andrew Jackson wanted to drive out the Indians, but they were too strong for his army. He settled on a policy of divide and conquer. He started the French and Indian War of 1812 with the help of the Cherokees, they thought that by helping Andy Jackson drive out the Creek Indians, they would be given special treatment and left alone by the whites. Chief Tecumseh, of the Shawnee, tried to unify the remaining Indian Nations in a last ditch stand to resist the white invasion. In 1813, Chief Tecumseh died in battle and his dreams of a unified Indian Nation died with him.
1815 – The US government forced or tricked many Cherokees into signing treaties to trade their lands for land in Arkansas and Oklahoma. About half of the Cherokees left for the New Territories and became known as the Old Settlers.
1828 – Andrew Jackson was elected president, and Gold was discovered in Georgia. The US government was split as to protect the Cherokees land claims, or to let Georgia drive them out. Gold fever swept the south. Miners and get rich quick scam artists invaded Cherokee Territory murdering, raping, and burning. Chief James Vann, a district judge for the Cherokees, captured, tried and hung the criminals. Georgia threatened war over the outrage of Cherokees hanging white men. The Cherokees sent lawyers and statesmen to court to argue their case. The federal government had given them treaties for the land and they should be protected from the citizens and army of Georgia. Georgia governor, George Gilmore stated, “Treaties were a means by which ignorant, intractable, and savage people were induced to yield what Civilized Peoples had a right to possess.”
1830 – The US Supreme Court decided in favor of protecting the Cherokees land rights. President Andrew Jackson defied the Supreme Court and sent the army to Georgia to drive out the Cherokees. Jackson proclaimed, “Justice John Marshall has rendered his decision, now let him enforce it.” President Jackson signed the ‘Indian Removal Act’, which required the forced removal of all Indians east of the Mississippi River to the new ‘vacant’ land obtained in the “Louisiana Purchase, to be guaranteed to the Indian tribes for as long as they shall occupy it”. Between 1830 and 1839, hundreds of Cherokee families fled the district, to Tennessee, Alabama, and North Carolina. Even while these cases were being argued in court, the state of Georgia organized a land lottery to divide up the Cherokee Nation into farms and gold claims.
1831 – The Choctaws were driven from their homes in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The federal government had agreed to pay to feed and clothe the Indians on their journey, but the money never came.
1836 – The Creeks were driven out at the point of a gun, put in chains and forced-marched by the US Army. Some 3,500 men women and children died of hunger and exposure along the way.
1837 – The Chickasaw loaded their belongings on wagons and headed west. The Seminoles chose to fight. After a long bloody war, the survivors were herded like cattle into any boat that would float and taken across the Gulf of Mexico and up the Mississippi.
1838 – Seven thousand federal troops, under the command of General Winfield Scott, were dispatched to the Cherokee Nation. Without warning, the troops broke down doors and drug people away to stockades. Those that moved too slowly were prodded with bayonets. In October, the Cherokees were herded into wooden stockades with no food, water, blankets, or sanitation. Most of them were barefoot and had no coats or blankets, yet they were forced to cross rivers in sub-zero weather.
They were forced-marched, with army guards, as far north as Indiana, on their way to Oklahoma. Thousands of men, women, and children froze to death, died of starvation and disease. The soldiers forced the Cherokees to abandon their dead at the side of the road. What few pitiful possessions they owned, had to be dropped at the side of the road in order to carry the sick and dying. Soldiers and settlers plundered the ancient Cherokee burial grounds for buried treasure. Family possessions left behind were plundered and burned. Of the 22,000 Cherokees who started this death-march, some 5,500 died on the way. One thousand six hundred Freedmen walked the Trail of Tears along with the rest of Cherokee.
At the plantation of Spring Place, the Georgia Guard threw a burning log onto the stairs to smoke out the people that lived there. The man who had won the house in the Georgia state lottery was there, urging the soldiers on to get ‘those people’ out of ‘his’ house. The Georgia Guard drove the missionaries out of their homes and school nearby, and turned it into a brothel for the army.
A guard (some years later) wrote, “I fought through the War (Civil War), and I saw men shot to pieces and slaughtered by the thousands, but the Cherokee Removal was the cruelest work I ever knew.”
A traveler from Maine wrote “Aging females, apparently nearly ready to drop into the grave, were traveling with heavy burdens attached to their backs – on frozen ground with no covering for their feet except what nature had given them. We learned from the inhabitants of the road where the Indians passed that they buried fourteen or fifteen at each stopping place.”
John G Burnett, a soldier who participated in the Removal wrote, “Men working in fields were arrested and driven into stockades. Women were dragged from their homes, by soldiers whose language they did not understand. Children were separated from their parents and driven into stockades with the sky for a blanket and the earth for a pillow. The old and infirm were prodded with bayonets to hasten them to the stockades. In one home, death had come during the night, a sad faced little child had died and was lying on a bear skin couch and some women were preparing the little boy for burial. All were arrested and driven out, leaving the dead child in the cabin. I don’t know who buried the body.
In another home was a frail mother, apparently a widow and three small children, one just a baby. When told that she must go, the mother gathered the children at her feet, prayed a humble prayer in her native tongue, patted the old family dog on the head, told the faithful creature goodbye, with a baby strapped on her back and leading a child with each hand, started on her exile. But the task was too great for the frail mother. A stroke of heart failure relieved her suffering. She sunk and died with her baby on her back, and her other two children clinging to her hands”
Butrick: Butrick crossed the Ohio on Dec. 15, 1838, he didn't see the Mississippi River until Jan. 25. Even then, it took three more weeks to get all the people in his contingent crossed. From the time the first contingent crossed the Ohio in November to the last part of Butrick's group in February, The Cherokees spent three months in Southern Illinois.
According to Butrick's diary, by Dec. 29, 1838, the detachments were spread out across the region. "One detachment stopped at the Ohio River, two at the Mississippi, one four miles this side, one 16 miles this side, one 18 miles, and one 13 miles behind us. In all these detachments, comprising about 8,000 souls, there is now a vast amount of sickness, and many deaths," wrote Butrick who himself was suffering from fever and a cough.
Quatie Ross: Although suffering from a cold, Quatie Ross, the Chief John Ross wife, gave her only blanket to a child. "Long time we travel on way to new land. People feel bad when they leave Old Nation. Women cry and make sad wails, Children cry and many men cry...but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much." She died of pneumonia at Little Rock. Some drank stagnant water and succumbed to disease. One survivor told how his father got sick and died; then, his mother; then, one by one, his five brothers and sisters. "One each day. Then all are gone."
Samuel Cloud: Samuel Cloud turned 9 years old on the Trail of Tears. Samuel's Memory is told by his great-great grandson, Micheal Rutledge, in his paper Forgiveness in the Age of Forgetfulness. Micheal, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is a law student at Arizona State University.
It is Spring. The leaves are on the trees. I am playing with my friends when white men in uniforms ride up to our home. My mother calls me. I can tell by her voice that something is wrong. Some of the men ride off. My mother tells me to gather my things, but the men don't allow us time to get anything. They enter our home and begin knocking over pottery and looking into everything. My mother and I are taken by several men to where their horses are and are held there at gun point. The men who rode off return with my father, Elijah. They have taken his rifle and he is walking toward us.
I can feel his anger and frustration. There is nothing he can do. From my mother I feel fear. I am filled with fear, too. What is going on? I was just playing, but now my family and my friends' families are gathered together and told to walk at the point of a bayonet.
We walk a long ways. My mother does not let me get far from her. My father is walking by the other men, talking in low, angry tones. The soldiers look weary, as though they'd rather be anywhere else but here.
They lead us to a stockade. They herd us into this pen like we are cattle. No one was given time to gather any possessions. The nights are still cold in the mountains and we do not have enough blankets to go around. My mother holds me at night to keep me warm. That is the only time I feel safe. I feel her pull me to her tightly. I feel her warm breath in my hair. I feel her softness as I fall asleep at night.
As the days pass, more and more of our people are herded into the stockade. I see other members of my clan. We children try to play, but the elders around us are anxious and we do not know what to think. I often sit and watch the others around me. I observe the guards. I try not to think about my hunger. I am cold.
Several months have passed and still we are in the stockades. My father looks tired. He talks with the other men, but no one seems to know what to do or what is going to happen. We hear that white men have moved into our homes and are farming our fields. What will happen to us? We are to march west to join the Western Cherokees. I don't want to leave these mountains.
My mother, my aunts and uncles take me aside one day. "Your father died last night," they tell me. My mother and my father's clan members are crying, but I do not understand what this means. I saw him yesterday. He was sick, but still alive. It doesn't seem real. Nothing seems real. I don't know what any of this means. It seems like yesterday, I was playing with my friends.
It is now Fall. It seems like forever since I was clean. The stockade is nothing but mud. In the morning it is stiff with frost. By mid-afternoon, it is soft and we are all covered in it. The soldiers suddenly tell us we are to follow them. We are led out of the stockade. The guards all have guns and are watching us closely. We walk. My mother keeps me close to her. I am allowed to walk with my uncle or an aunt, occasionally.
We walk across the frozen earth. Nothing seems right anymore. The cold seeps through my clothes. I wish I had my blanket. I remember last winter I had a blanket, when I was warm. I don't feel like I'll ever be warm again. I remember my father's smile. It seems like so long ago.
We walked for many days. I don't know how long it has been since we left our home, but the mountains are behind us. Each day, we start walking a little later. They bury the dead in shallow graves, because the ground is frozen. As we walk past white towns, the whites come out to watch us pass. No words are spoken to them. No words are said to us. Still, I wish they would stop staring. I wish it were them walking in this misery and I were watching them. It is because of them that we are walking. I don't understand why, but I know that much. They made us leave our homes. They made us walk to this new place we are heading in the middle of winter. I do not like these people. Still, they stare at me as I walk past.
My mother is coughing now. She looks worn. Her hands and face are burning hot. My aunts and uncles try to take care of me, so she can get better. I don't want to leave her alone. I just want to sit with her. I want her to stroke my hair, like she used to do. My aunts try to get me to sleep by them, but at night, I creep to her side. She coughs and it wracks her whole body. When she feels me by her side, she opens her blanket and lets me in. I nestle against her feverish body. I can make it another day, I know, because she is here.
When I went to sleep last night, my mother was hot and coughing worse than usual. When I woke up, she was cold. I tried to wake her up, but she lay there. The soft warmth she once was, she is no more. I kept touching her, as hot tears stream down my face. She couldn't leave me. She wouldn't leave me.
I hear myself call her name, softly, then louder. She does not answer. My aunt and uncle come over to me to see what is wrong. My aunt looks at my mother. My uncle pulls me from her. My aunt begins to wail. I will never forget that wail. I did not understand when my father died. My mother's death I do not understand, but I suddenly know that I am alone. My clan will take care of me, but I will be forever denied her warmth, the soft fingers in my hair, her gentle breath as we slept. I am alone. I want to cry. I want to scream in rage. I can do nothing.
We bury her in a shallow grave by the road. I will never forget that lonesome hill of stone that is her final bed, as it fades from my sight. I tread softly by my uncle, my hand in his. I walk with my head turned, watching that small hill as it fades from my sight. The soldiers make us continue walking. My uncle talks to me, trying to comfort me. I walk in loneliness.
I know what it is to hate. I hate those white soldiers who took us from our home. I hate the soldiers who make us keep walking through the snow and ice toward this new home that none of us ever wanted. I hate the people who killed my father and mother.
I hate the white people who lined the roads in their woolen clothes that kept them warm, watching us pass. None of those white people are here to say they are sorry that I am alone. None of them care about me or my people. All they ever saw was the color of our skin. All I see is the color of theirs and I hate them.
There were ten million Native Americans on this continent when the first non-Indians arrived. Over the next 300 years, 90% of all Native American original population was either wiped out by disease, famine, or warfare imported by the whites.
By 1840 all the eastern tribes had been subdued, annihilated or forcibly removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi.
2023.05.26 22:09 sunfl0werfields Jumping on the trend - but I have both my highest and lowest!
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|Lionel HOLLINS||5||Alan HENDERSON|
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2023.05.26 03:17 AmusedBlue UHaul Van Camping Help
2023.05.25 18:20 nahimavegan (Selling) Huge list of 1100+ movies! Lots of New and Rare titles!
2023.05.25 16:09 BeefosaurusRekt Freightliner Sprinter 2500 asking $41,000 - Description in comments
TECHNICAL SPECS:submitted by BeefosaurusRekt to vandwellermarketplace [link] [comments]
My wife and I purchased this van in the summer of 2022 and spent 6 months driving around North America with our dog. With us it has been through roughly 30 states and 3 provinces and seen some of the most beautiful scenery, parked in the coolest downtowns, and boondocked in the most wild and remote places. Before us it was also a van life van and the previous owner spent two years traveling around the states and living off grid!
We love this van and had intended on being it's forever owners but I had a sudden career change and it was simpler for my wife and I to settle near my family and plant for a while. We plan to purchase a home and are selling to help fund that goal.
The build out was done by a combo of the previous owner and licensed plumbers/electricians/carpenters. Anything that wasn't a simple build was done by the licensed professional which includes all gas line work for the stove/oven, solar install, lighting, diesel heater install, etc.
This van was very comfortable for my wife and I and our poodle and while it's obviously a small space it is very well laid out and practical. Nothing is wasted. Our favorite parts are the spacious storage which includes a closet and the cute little dinette! We ate here for most meals unless it was really nice outside and we wanted to enjoy the weather. Also, I'm 6ft and being able to stand inside is a luxury I'm glad I didn't have to do without.
The van also has ample room in the back for supplies, toys, tools, etc. I stored multiple tool kits, a blow up kayak, camp stoves and chairs, tons of stuff for our dog, a jackery, and a whole slew of other things with room to spare.
RECENT REPAIRS/ WORK:
Okay so now to the good stuff about the build!
It could be replaced with a composting toilet if you desired but for us it was not necessary as we spent most of our time near toilets or so far out in the woods that the wilderness was a better choice.
This van was a part of some amazing memories for my wife and I. We loved driving it, living in it, taking pictures of it, and telling all of our friends about it to make them jealous! We visited probably over 20 national parks and more than that in state parks and public lands.
If you any questions at all do not hesitate to dm me! We are based in coastal Delaware and I would be willing to drive it to you depending on the distance and agreement/interest on a sale.
We're about 1.5 hours from BWI and DC area airports if you live in another area and wish to fly out. I would be willing to meet you near the metro areas if necessary as I have friends who live there.
Thanks so much for looking and I wish you the best on your van shopping journey!
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